Quand La Bulgarie A-T-Elle Gagné Son Indépendance?

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Situé en Europe du sud-est, la République de Bulgarie est le 16th plus grand pays d'Europe par zone terrestre. Il occupe une partie de la péninsule balkanique. La Bulgarie a obtenu son indépendance de l’Empire ottoman en mars 3, 1878. La nation a subi une série de formations pour devenir la République de Bulgarie à partir de l'année 681 avec le Premier Empire bulgare, suivie par le deuxième Empire bulgare commençant dans 1185.

Bulgarie sous la domination ottomane

En retard 14th siècle, le deuxième empire bulgare divisé en tsardoms de Tarnovo, Karvuna et Vidin, et les Turcs ottomans ont commencé à conquérir la Bulgarie. Les Ottomans ont capturé Tarnovo dans 1393 et Vidin dans 1396 après la bataille de Nicopolis. Les nouveaux dirigeants ont divisé le pays en vilayets qui étaient gouvernés par un Subasi. Le sultan turc a donné des parties essentielles de la terre à ses partisans, bien qu'ils ne l'aient retenu que comme des bénéfices, et à leur mort, la zone est revenue au sultan. Les Bulgares sont confrontés à de lourdes taxes, une partie de la population se convertissant à l’islam, ce qui supprime la culture bulgare.

Poussez pour l'indépendance bulgare

À travers la règle ottomane qui a duré près de cinq siècles, il y a eu plusieurs révoltes. Certains des soulèvements notables ont eu lieu à Tarnovo dans les années 1598 et 1686. Le 18th siècle a vu l’initiation du mouvement national d’éveil de la Bulgarie qui a joué un rôle crucial dans la libération du pays. Les Ottomans ont tué autour de 30,000 des Bulgares pour arrêter le soulèvement d’avril dans 1876, un massacre qui a attiré l’attention des grandes puissances. La même année, les grandes puissances ont réuni la Conférence de Constantinople et ont pris des décisions que les autorités ottomanes ont rejetées. L'Empire russe a déclaré la guerre à 1877 et a vaincu les forces de l'Empire ottoman. Des Bulgares se sont portés volontaires et ont participé à la bataille contre les Ottomans.

Indépendance de l'Empire Ottoman

En mars, 3, 1878, les empires russe et ottoman ont approuvé le traité de San Stefano, qui a influencé la création de la Principauté de Bulgarie. Les autres grandes puissances ont rejeté le traité conduisant à la signature du traité de Berlin le 13 juillet. Le nouvel accord a réduit la taille de la Bulgarie, laissant une population importante en dehors de la nouvelle nation, dans les régions de Rumelia orientale et de Macédoine. L'Empire ottoman a repris certains territoires avec d'autres allant en Serbie et en Roumanie. En vertu des deux traités, la Bulgarie devait créer une assemblée qui établirait une constitution et élirait un prince qui serait vassal du sultan ottoman. Les Bulgares célèbrent aujourd'hui leur fête de l'indépendance nationale le jour de la signature du traité de San Stefano.

Relations extérieures de la Bulgarie

En 1955, la Bulgarie a rejoint les Nations Unies et 1975 a formé avec d'autres nations l'Organisation pour la sécurité et la coopération en Europe. Dans le 21st siècle, la Bulgarie a rejoint l’OTAN à 2004 et est devenue membre de l’Union européenne à 2007 après avoir signé le traité d’adhésion à l’Union européenne en 2005. Le pays entretient de bonnes relations avec ses voisins et joue un rôle crucial dans la promotion de la sécurité régionale.

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C20+ Lightening Serum Review
Lighteners & Brighteners

C20+ Lightening Serum Review –Should You Try It?

As we age, in addition to fine lines and wrinkles, crows feet, and sagging skin, we may also get dark spots on our face.  These may simply be age spots (or liver spots), or they may be damage left behind from acne or too much sun.  Whatever the reason, they can be unsightly and we want them gone.  There are plenty of options when looking for skin brighteners and lighteners, and they cover a wide range of effectiveness and price.

C20+ Lightening Serum from Nufountain Fresh Cosmetics takes a healthy skincare approach.  It is a simple Vitamin C serum that promises to improve the health and look of your skin over time.  Good for all skin types, C20+ Lightening Serum promises to lighten, firm, smooth, protect, and repair skin in as little as 2 months.  The most interesting thing about C20+ Lightening Serum is perhaps that it is made fresh to order.  Vitamin C is notoriously unstable, so sitting on a shelf waiting to be sold is not the ideal situation for this serum.  Nufountain makes each bottle to order when you make a purchase.

C20+ Lightening Serum ReviewC20+ Lightening Serum Ingredients and How They Work

C20+ Lightening Serum keeps it simple with 3 active ingredients:

  • L-Ascorbic Acid 20% – This is the form of Vitamin C that is best able to penetrate skin and have the lightening effect you want.  It works because of its antioxidant properties and because it facilitates the production of gluthathione, which regulates skin pigmentation.  It also helps firm and protect skin by encouraging collagen production and pairing up free radicals.
  • Alpha Arbutin 6%-  This is extracted from the Bearberry Tree, and it is a natural alternative to hydroquinone.  It inhibits melanin production and thereby lightens skin.
  • Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) 6% – This vitamin doesn’t inhibit melanin production, but it does keep it from acting on skin and causing it to darken.

Made to order, C20+ Lightening Serum is always fresh.  It comes in an amber colored glass bottle, and you’ll want to keep it in a cool, dark place to slow the oxidation process of the vitamin c.  Instructions are to apply 5 or 6 drops to face and neck and to let it dry before applying moisturizer or sunscreen.  You may feel a warm, tingling sensations, but if you experience irritation, you should discontinue use.  You should also discontinue use if C20+ Lightening Serum turns a dark amber color.  This would indicate that the Vitamin C has oxidized, and Vitamin C in this state could cause more harm than good for your skin.

C20+ Lightening Serum Pros and Cons

The Good About C20+ Lightening Serum

  • It is made fresh to order.
  • It is relatively affordable.
  • C20+ Lightening Serum reviews are overwhelmingly positive.

The Bad About C20+ Lightening Serum

  • The L-Ascorbic Acid is unstable and may oxidize quickly if not taken care of properly.

Where to Buy

Because they make it fresh to order, C20+ Lightening Serum is not widely available through many retailers.  Your options are limited to Amazon and the Nufountain Fresh Cosmetics website.   Both stores offer 1 bottle for $22.99, with a special buy 2 get 1 free deal.  There is no explicit guarantee, but the website’s contact page specifies where to send returns, so if you find yourself wanting to return it, call and discuss this with the company.

Conclusions

We review a lot of products, and we rarely come across something that has such overwhelmingly positive feedback.  From the customer service to the pricing to the made-to-order product, Nufountain Fresh Cosmetics seems to be doing everything right with its C20+ Lightening Serum.  We feel quite comfortable recommending this skin lightening product and this company.

Read about our Top Skin Lighteners

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